Search Engines: Sodom and Gomorrah; Can meteors cause brimstone; Can meteors cause monoclinic forms of sulfur; Do Meteorites or comets have white sulfur; Asteroid impacts before 00 AD; Date of Sodom and Gomorrah. E-sword Brimestone. Hail.
Date: 2047*, 2016, 2066/67, 2070, 3120, 3123 (June 29th), 2100-1900, 1713 BCE Sodom and Gamorah destroyed at Passover? or one month later. In all five Plain cities were destroyed. Possibilities: Comet/Asteroid; Earthquake. Genesis 19 www.biblearchaeology.org/post/2008/04/The-Discovery-of-the-Sin-Cities-of-Sodom-and-Gomorrah.aspx
Gen 13:10 And Lot lifted up his eyes, and beheld all the plain of Jordan, that it was well watered every where, before the LORD destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, even as the garden of the LORD, like the land of Egypt, as thou comest unto Zoar.
There were 5 plain cities and each were ruled by a king: There was (1) Bera, king of Sodom, (2) Birsha, king of Gomorrah, (3) Shinab, king of Admad, (4) Shember, king of Zeboiim, and (5) the king of Bela, which is also called Zoar (Genesis 14:8). The five kings were under the dominion of a coalition of eastern Mesopotamian overlords.
Gen 19:1 And there came two angels to Sodom at even; and Lot sat in the gate of Sodom: and Lot seeing them rose up to meet them; and he bowed himself with his face toward the ground;
Gen 19:2 And he said, Behold now, my lords, turn in, I pray you, into your servant's house, and tarry all night, and wash your feet, and ye shall rise up early, and go on your ways. And they said, Nay; but we will abide in the street all night.
Gen 19:3 And he pressed upon them greatly; and they turned in unto him, and entered into his house; and he made them a feast, and did bake unleavened bread, and they did eat.
Passover* (*)= Two or more agree to it being in the Spring during the Spring Feasts.
Gen 19:4 But before they lay down, the men of the city, even the men of Sodom, compassed the house round, both old and young, all the people from every quarter:
Gen 19:5 And they called unto Lot, and said unto him, Where are the men which came in to thee this night? bring them out unto us, that we may know them.
Gen 19:6 And Lot went out at the door unto them, and shut the door after him,
Gen 19:7 And said, I pray you, brethren, do not so wickedly.
Gen 19:8 Behold now, I have two daughters which have not known man; let me, I pray you, bring them out unto you, and do ye to them as is good in your eyes: only unto these men do nothing; for therefore came they under the shadow of my roof.
Gen 19:9 And they said, Stand back. And they said again, This one fellow came in to sojourn, and he will needs be a judge: now will we deal worse with thee, than with them. And they pressed sore upon the man, even Lot, and came near to break the door.
Gen 19:10 But the men put forth their hand, and pulled Lot into the house to them, and shut to the door.
Gen 19:11 And they smote the men that were at the door of the house with blindness, both small and great: so that they wearied themselves to find the door.
Gen 19:12 And the men said unto Lot, Hast thou here any besides? son in law, and thy sons, and thy daughters, and whatsoever thou hast in the city, bring them out of this place:
Gen 19:13 For we will destroy this place, because the cry of them is waxen great before the face of the LORD; and the LORD hath sent us to destroy it.
The many names of 'The Destroyer'
The star has been given many names during its course through the history of mankind.
Lucifer, Satan, The Dragon, The Great Snake, The Destroyer, The Serpent, The Devil, Marduk, Nibiru, Shiva, Hercolubus, Wormwood, The Dark Star, The Death Star, The Red Star, The Red Planet, The Planet of the Crossing, The Winged Disk, The Tenth Planet, The Dark Twin, Black Star, Freightener, flaming sword ?,
“The Destroyer” in the Old Testament of the Bible; “The Destroyer” in ancient writings of the Egyptians (Ex 12:23; Jer 6:22-30; Jer 48:7-10; Isa 16:4-5; Jer 4:1-10; Jer 51:18; 51:54-58; Rev 12:3-4, 9, 12-15). Other verses: Isa 54:16-17;
“Wormwood” in the book of Revelation 8; “Nibiru” in the writings of the Sumerians; “Marduk” in the Babylonian religion; “Phateon” in the Greek literature;“Nemesis” in the Greek mythology; “Apollyon” in Babylonian mythology; Rev 9:11; “Apollo” in Greek mythology; “G1.9” as a working title by NASA; "The Death Star" by NASA.
Gen 19:14 And Lot went out, and spake unto his sons in law, which married his daughters, and said, Up, get you out of this place; for the LORD will destroy this city. But he seemed as one that mocked unto his sons in law.
Gen 19:15 And when the morning arose, then the angels hastened Lot, saying, Arise, take thy wife, and thy two daughters, which are here; lest thou be consumed in the iniquity (sin/sins) of the city.
Gen 19:16 And while he lingered, the men laid hold upon his hand, and upon the hand of his wife, and upon the hand of his two daughters; the LORD being merciful unto him: and they brought him forth, and set him without the city.
Gen 19:17 And it came to pass, when they had brought them forth abroad, that he said, Escape for thy life; look not behind thee, neither stay thou in all the plain; escape to the mountain, lest thou be consumed.
Gen 19:18 And Lot said unto them, Oh, not so, my Lord:
Gen 19:19 Behold now, thy servant hath found grace in thy sight, and thou hast magnified thy mercy, which thou hast shewed unto me in saving my life; and I cannot escape to the mountain, lest some evil take me, and I die:
Gen 19:20 Behold now, this city is near to flee unto, and it is a little one: Oh, let me escape thither, (is it not a little one?) and my soul shall live.
Gen 19:21 And he said unto him, See, I have accepted thee concerning this thing also, that I will not overthrow this city, for the which thou hast spoken.
Gen 19:22 Haste thee, escape thither; for I cannot do any thing till thou be come thither. Therefore the name of the city was called Zoar.
Gen 19:23 The sun was risen upon the earth when Lot entered into Zoar.
Gen 19:24 Then the LORD rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone (Sulfur) and fire from the LORD out of heaven;
Deposits of sulfur (brimstone) and asphalt (Gen 14:10) have been found in this area.
27) Fires (Isa 34:9; 37:7; Isa 25:4; Ps 46:6,8; 2 Sam 16:14-16; 1-4 Trumpet judgments Rev 8; Ezek 38:22; 2 Peter 3:10; Isa 30:30; Rev 16:8-9); Nah 1:5 (burned)
10) dramatic increase in meteoric/asteroid impacts on the planet (stars falling from the sky; Rev 6:12-17). Brimstone Gen 19:24, Matt 24:29; Mk 13:24-25.
Rev. 8-9 has brimstone and fire.
The Lord rained burning sulphur (lit "sulfur and fire"). As in Noah's day, the fatal instrument of judgment against sinners came out of the sky. No natural explanation (e.g. volcano) is suggested, only a supernatural one: it came from the Lord. Perhaps the asphalt pits (Gen 14:10) were ignighted, adding to the destruction.
It shall dwell in his tabernacle, because it is none of his: brimstone shall be scattered upon his habitation Job 18:15
Upon the wicked he shall rain snares, fire and brimstone, and an horrible tempest: this shall be the portion of their cup. Psa 11:6
For Tophet is ordained of old; yea, for the king it is prepared; he hath made it deep and large: the pile thereof is fire and much wood; the breath of the LORD, like a stream of brimstone, doth kindle it. Isa 30:33
And the streams thereof shall be turned into pitch, and the dust thereof into brimstone, and the land thereof shall become burning pitch Isa 34:9
And I will plead against him with pestilence and with blood; and I will rain upon him, and upon his bands, and upon the many people that are with him, an overflowing rain, and great hailstones, fire, and brimstone. Eze 38:22
Psalms 78:47 He gave up their cattle also to the hail, and their flocks to hot thunderbolts.
Deuteronomy 29:23 KJV And that the whole land thereof is brimstone, and salt, and burning, that it is not sown , nor beareth , nor any grass groweth therein, like the overthrow of Sodom, and Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboim, which the LORD overthrew in his anger, and in his wrath:
The scriptures also explained how hail mingled with fire was one of the judgements used against Egypt. Exodus 9. In Job it explains that God has stored up hail to use for the day of battle against whom you may ask sinful unrepentant men. Job 38:22-23.
Hebrew Prophets, who often use the image of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah as a warning to Israel (Isaiah 1:9; 3:9; 13:19; Jeremiah 23:14; Ezekiel 16:46-49; Amos 4:11; Zephaniah 2:9).
Brimstone Gen 19:24>Deut 29:23; Job 18;15; Ps 11:6; Isa 34:9; Ezk 38:22; Rev 9:17-18; 14:10; = Rev 21:8.
Gen 19:25 And he overthrew those cities, and all the plain, and all the inhabitants of the cities, and that which grew upon the ground.
Gen 19:26 But his wife looked back from behind him, and she became a pillar of salt.
Lot's wife, who was trailing behind him with her heart still in Sodom, looked back, died, and possibly was enveloped by blowing salt, which formed a "pillar" around her body. This event was used by Yeshua as a warning to others to not look back (Lk 17:21-33).
Gen 19:27 And Abraham gat up early in the morning to the place where he stood before the LORD:
Gen 19:28 And he looked toward Sodom and Gomorrah, and toward all the land of the plain, and beheld, and, lo, the smoke of the country went up as the smoke of a furnace. (Rev 9:2). CERN.
Exo_19:18 And mount Sinai was altogether on a smoke, because the LORD descended upon it in fire: and the smoke thereof ascended as the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mount quaked greatly.
Rev_9:2 And he opened the bottomless pit; and there arose a smoke out of the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace; and the sun and the air were darkened by reason of the smoke of the pit.
Gen 19:29 And it came to pass, when God destroyed the cities of the plain, that God remembered Abraham, and sent Lot out of the midst of the overthrow, when he overthrew the cities in the which Lot dwelt.
The overthrow of Sodom and Gommorrah is used as a warning on several occasions in both the Old and New Testament (see Deut 29:23; Isa 1:9-10; Jer 49:18; Amos 4:11; Matt 10:15; 11:23-24; Rom 9:29; 2 Pet 2:6; Jude 7; Rev 11:8).
The destruction was so complete that thick smoke like that of a furnace was still billowing up 24 hours later. Nevertheless, Lot had been saved because God remembered Abraham and acted in consideration of His covenental relationship with him (Gen 18:19).
5 Plain cities destroyed by fire and brimstone.
Sexual perversions were present with all kinds. The final, unforgiveable sin was not that of lust itself, but of a ruthless determination to harm and molest defenseless people (strangers to whom every hospitality was due). Sinners rarely appreciate having a cherished sin condemned.
Sodom and Gomorrah have become synonymous with impenitent sin, and their fall with a proverbial manifestation of divine retribution. (Jude 1:7) Sodom and Gomorrah have been used as metaphors for vice and homosexuality viewed as a deviation. The story has therefore given rise to words in several languages, including the English word sodomy, used in sodomy laws to describe a sexual "crime against nature" consisting of anal or oral sex, either homosexual or heterosexual, or sexual activity between a person and a non-human animal (bestiality). Some Islamic societies incorporate punishments associated with Sodom and Gomorrah into sharia.
Sodomites also committed economic crimes, blasphemy and bloodshed. They had a lack of compassion when it came to property.
The scholar and activist Jay Michaelson proposes a reading of the story of Sodom that emphasizes the violation of hospitality as well as the violence of the Sodomites. "Homosexual rape is the way in which they violate hospitality—not the essence of their transgression. Reading the story of Sodom as being about homosexuality is like reading the story of an ax murderer as being about an ax." Michaelson places the story of Sodom in context with other Genesis stories regarding Abraham's hospitality to strangers, and argues that when other texts in the Hebrew Bible mention Sodom, they do so without commentary on homosexuality. The verses cited by Michaelson include Jeremiah 23:14 where the sins of Jerusalem are compared to Sodom and are listed as adultery, lying, and strengthening the hands of evildoers; Amos 4:1-11 (oppressing the poor and crushing the needy); and Ezekiel 16:49-50, which defines the sins of Sodom as "pride, fullness of bread, and abundance of idleness was in her and in her daughters, neither did she strengthen the hand of the poor and needy. And they were haughty, and did toevah before me, and I took them away as I saw fit." Michaelson uses toevah in place of abomination to emphasize the original Hebrew, which he explains as being more correctly translated as "taboo".
Toeveh H8441 to-ay-baw', to-ay-baw'
Feminine active participle of H8581; properly something disgusting (morally), that is, (as noun) an abhorrence; especially idolatry or (concretely) an idol: - abominable (custom, thing), abomination.
1) a disgusting thing, abomination, abominable
1a) in ritual sense (of unclean food, idols, mixed marriages)
1b) in ethical sense (of wickedness etc)
Lev_18:26-27 (2), Lev_18:29, Deu_18:9, Deu_18:12, Deu_20:18, Deu_32:16, 1Ki_14:24, 2Ki_16:3, 2Ki_21:2, 2Ki_21:11, 2Ch_28:3, 2Ch_33:2, 2Ch_34:33, 2Ch_36:8, 2Ch_36:14, Ezr_9:1, Ezr_9:11, Ezr_9:14, Pro_26:25, Jer_7:10, Jer_44:22, Eze_5:9, Eze_5:11, Eze_6:9, Eze_6:11, Eze_7:3-4 (2), Eze_7:8-9 (2), Eze_7:20, Eze_8:6 (2), Eze_8:9, Eze_8:13, Eze_8:15, Eze_8:17, Eze_9:4, Eze_11:18, Eze_11:21, Eze_12:16, Eze_14:6, Eze_16:2, Eze_16:22, Eze_16:36, Eze_16:43, Eze_16:47, Eze_16:51 (2), Eze_16:58, Eze_18:13, Eze_18:24, Eze_20:4, Eze_22:2, Eze_23:36, Eze_33:29, Eze_36:31, Eze_43:8, Eze_44:6-7 (2), Eze_44:13
Gen_43:32, Gen_46:34, Exo_8:26 (2), Lev_18:22, Lev_20:13, Deu_7:25-26 (2), Deu_12:31, Deu_13:14, Deu_17:1, Deu_17:4, Deu_18:12, Deu_22:5, Deu_23:18, Deu_24:4, Deu_25:16, Deu_27:15, 2Ki_23:13, Psa_88:8, Pro_3:32, Pro_6:16, Pro_8:7, Pro_11:1, Pro_11:20, Pro_12:22, Pro_13:19, Pro_15:8-9 (2), Pro_15:26, Pro_16:5, Pro_16:12, Pro_17:15, Pro_20:10, Pro_20:23, Pro_21:27, Pro_28:9 (2), Pro_29:27 (2), Isa_1:13, Isa_41:24, Isa_44:19, Jer_2:7, Jer_6:15, Jer_8:12, Jer_32:35, Eze_16:50, Eze_18:12, Eze_22:11, Eze_33:26, Mal_2:11
Lev_18:30, Deu_14:3, Jer_16:18, Jer_44:4
Tawab H8581 taw-ab'
A primitive root; to loathe, that is, (morally) detest: - (make to be) abhor (-red), (be, commit more, do) abominable (-y), X utterly.
Myths and Traditions of Sodomy
One major crime done to strangers was almost identical to that of Procrustes in Greek mythology. This would be the story of the "bed" that guests to Sodom were forced to sleep in: if they were too short they were stretched to fit it, and if they were too tall, they were cut up (indeed, in Hebrew and Yiddish, the corresponding term for a Procrustean bed is a "Sodom bed").
In another incident, Eliezer, Abraham's servant, went to visit Lot in Sodom and got in a dispute with a Sodomite over a beggar, and was hit in the forehead with a stone, making him bleed. The Sodomite demanded Eliezer pay him for the service of bloodletting, and a Sodomite judge sided with the Sodomite. Eliezer then struck the judge in the forehead with a stone and asked the judge to pay the Sodomite.
A young girl (one involved Lot's daughter Paltith) who gave some bread to a poor man who had entered the city. When the townspeople discovered their acts of kindness, they burned Paltith and smeared the other girl's body with honey and hung her from the city wall until she was eaten by bees.
The name Sodom could be a word from an early Semitic language ultimately related to the Arabic sadama, meaning "fasten", "fortify", "strengthen", and Gomorrah could be based on the root gh m r, which means "be deep", "copious (water)". It may mean then to strenthen the deep as in chaos or hell.
Parallels between Noah and Lot
1) Both were righteous men (Gen 6:9; 2 Pet 2:7).
2) Both were warned that the Lord was about to destroy entire civilizations for the great sin (Gen 6:13).
3) The families were included in God's salvation.
Possible Causes of the death.
Possibly an earthquake occurred and lightning ignighted the gases that were released, causing a rain of fire and smoke.
If the cities actually existed, they might have been destroyed as the result of a natural disaster. One theory says that the Dead Sea was devastated by an earthquake between 2100 and 1900 BC, which could have unleashed showers of steaming tar. It is possible that the towns were destroyed by an earthquake in the region, especially if the towns lay along a major fault, the Jordan Rift Valley. However, there is a lack of contemporary accounts of seismic activity within the necessary timeframe to corroborate this theory. Some think the area was destroyed by the plume of a meteor that impacted in the Alps, based on a cuneiform tablet called the Planisphere, which they consider represents the sky around the time of the supposed disaster and shows a moving object that could be seen from Earth.
Asteroid or Comet is the best going idea. Why. Sodom and Gomorrah was destroyed in heating range of 6000 deg. F. They are in the plains way away from the Dead Sea. They are 200 feet above dead sea level. Josephus saw them after their incineration.
Numeira was destroyed (2600 BC) at a different time period from Bab edh-Dhra (2350–2067 BC).
Another candidate for Sodom is the Tall el Hammam dig site which began in 2006 under the direction of Steven Collins. The researchers claim to have discovered an ash layer containing human bone fragments, which they believe indicates a meteor airburst and sudden end to the civilization in this area. Recently, desert glass had been found among the glazed pottery shards. Desert glass requires extremely high temperatures to fuse sand into glass. These temperatures are not found from oil fires, gas fires, or siege fires. It is also evident that the area was not occupied for several centuries afterward. In addition there is evidence of Hellenistic, Eastern Roman, and Byzantine occupation on the site. Professor Eugene H. Merrill believes that the identification of Tall el-Hammam with Sodom would require an unacceptable restructuring of the biblical chronology.
The Book of Genesis is the primary source that mentions the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah. Major and minor prophets in the Hebrew Bible have also referred to Sodom and Gomorrah to parallel their prophetic events. The New Testament also contains passages of parallels to the destruction and surrounding events that pertained to these cities and those who were involved.
Battle of Siddim
See also: Battle of Siddim
In Genesis Chapter 14, Sodom and Gomorrah's political situation is described during the time biblical Lot had encamped in Sodom's territory. Genesis 13:13 indicates that at that time, "the men of Sodom (were) wicked and sinners before the LORD exceedingly." Sodom was ruled by King Bera while Gomorrah was ruled by King Birsha. Their kingship, however, was not sovereign, because all of the river Jordan plain was under Elamite rule for twelve years. The kingdom of Elam was ruled by King Chedorlaomer. (Genesis 14:1-4)
In the thirteenth year of subjugation to Elam, the five kings of the river Jordan plain allied to rebel against Elamite rule. (v.4). These kings included those of Sodom and Gomorrah as well as their neighbors: King Shinab of Admah, King Shemeber of Zeboiim, and the unnamed king of Bela (later called Zoar). (v.2)
In response, Elam's King Chedorlaomer, gathered additional forces from Shinar, Ellasar and Goyim to suppress this rebellion from the cities of the plain. (v.1,2) They waged war in the Vale of Siddim (v.3,8) in the fourteenth year. The battle was brutal with heavy losses in the cities of the plain, with their resultant defeat. (v.10) Sodom and Gomorrah were spoiled of their goods, and captives were taken, including Lot. (v.11,12).
The tide of war turned when Lot's uncle Abram gathered an elite force that slaughtered King Chedorlaomer's forces in Hobah, north of Damascus. (v.14-17) The success of his mission freed the cities of the plain from under Elam's rule. (v.18-20)
The Judgment upon Sodom and Gomorrah
In Genesis 18 three men, thought by most commentators to have been angels appearing as men, came to Abraham in the plains of Mamre. After the angels received the hospitality of Abraham and Sarah, his wife, "the LORD" revealed to Abraham that he would destroy Sodom and Gomorrah, because their cry was great, "and because their sin is very grievous." (Gen 18:20)
In response, Abraham inquired of the LORD if he would spare the city if 50 righteous people were found in it, to which the LORD agreed he would not destroy it for the sake of the righteous yet dwelling therein. Abraham then inquired of God for mercy at lower numbers (first 45, then 40, then 30, then 20, and finally at 10), with the LORD agreeing each time. (Gen 18:22-33). Two angels were sent to Sodom to investigate and were met by Abraham's nephew Lot, who convinced the angels to lodge with him, and they ate with Lot.
Genesis 19:4-5 (KJV) described what followed, which confirmed its end:
4 But before they lay down, the men of the city, (even) the men of Sodom, compassed the house round, both old and young, all the people from every quarter:
5 And they called unto Lot, and said unto him, Where (are) the men which came in to thee this night? bring them out unto us, that we may know them.
(NRSV: know them, NIV: can have sex with them, NJB: can have intercourse with them).
The Sodom and Gomorrah motif from the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel, 1493. Note Lot's wife, already transformed into a salt pillar, in the center.
Lot refused to give his guests to the inhabitants of Sodom and, instead, offered them his two virgin daughters "which have not known man" and to "do ye to them as (is) good in your eyes". (Gen 19:8). However, they refused this offer, complained about this alien, namely Lot, giving orders, and then came near to break down the door. Lot's angelic guests rescued him and struck the men with blindness and they informed Lot of their mission to destroy the city. (Genesis 19:9-13).
Then (not having found even 10 righteous people in the city), they commanded Lot to gather his family and leave. As they made their escape, one angel commanded Lot to "look not behind thee" (singular "thee"). (Genesis 19:17). However, as Sodom and Gomorrah were destroyed with brimstone and fire from the LORD, Lot's wife looked back at the city, and she became a pillar of salt. (Genesis 19:23-26).
Moses referred to the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah in Deuteronomy 29:22-23:
"Your children who follow you in later generations and foreigners who come from distant lands will see the calamities that have fallen on the land and the diseases with which the LORD has afflicted it. The whole land will be a burning waste of salt and sulfur—nothing planted, nothing sprouting, no vegetation growing on it. It will be like the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboyim, which the LORD overthrew in fierce anger." - NIV
See also: Deuteronomy 32:32-33
Isaiah 1:9-10, Isaiah 3:9 and Isaiah 13:19-22 addresses people as from Sodom and Gomorrah, associates Sodom with shameless sinning and tells Babylon that it will end like those two cities.
Jeremiah 23:14, Jeremiah 49:17-18, Jeremiah 50:39-40 and Lamentations 4:6 associate Sodom and Gomorrah with adultery and lies, prophesies the fate of Edom, south of the Dead Sea, predicts the fate of Babylon and uses Sodom as a comparison.
In Ezekiel 16:48-50 God compares Jerusalem to Sodom, saying "Sodom never did what you and your daughters have done." He explains that the sin of Sodom was that "She and her daughters were arrogant, overfed and unconcerned; they did not help the poor and needy. They were haughty and did detestable things before me."
In Amos 4:1-11 God tells the Israelites he had warned them and treated them like Sodom and Gomorrah, still they did not repent.
In Zephaniah 2:9 the prophet tells Moab and Ammon, southeast and northeast of the Dead Sea, that they will end up like Sodom and Gomorrah.
In Matthew 10:1-15, cf. Luke 10:1-12, Jesus declares certain cities more damnable than Sodom and Gomorrah, due to their response to Jesus' disciples, in the light of greater grace (RSV):
"And if any one will not receive you or listen to your words, shake off the dust from your feet as you leave that house or town. Truly, I say to you, it shall be more tolerable on the day of judgment for the land of Sodom and Gomor'rah than for that town."
In Matthew 11:20-24 Jesus prophesies the fate of some cities where he did some of his works (RSV):
"And you, Caper'na-um, will you be exalted to heaven? You shall be brought down to Hades. For if the mighty works done in you had been done in Sodom, it would have remained until this day. But I tell you that it shall be more tolerable on the day of judgment for the land of Sodom than for you."
In Luke 17:28-30 Jesus compares his second-coming to the judgment of Sodom and Gomorrah (RSV):
"Likewise as it was in the days of Lot—they ate, they drank, they bought, they sold, they planted, they built, but on the day when Lot went out from Sodom fire and sulphur rained from heaven and destroyed them all—so will it be on the day when the Son of man is revealed."
In Romans 9:29 Paul quotes Isaiah 1:9-10 (RSV): "And as Isaiah predicted, 'If the Lord of hosts had not left us children, we would have fared like Sodom and been made like Gomor'rah.'"
In 2 Peter 2:4-10 Peter uses the time of Sodom and Lot in his description of the time of the second coming of Jesus.
Jude 1:7 records that both Sodom and Gomorrah were "giving themselves over to fornication, and going after strange flesh, are set forth for an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire."
Revelation 11:7-8 makes an allegorical use of Sodom when it describes the places where the two witnesses will descend during the Apocalypse.
Rev 8:5 And the angel took the censer, and filled it with fire of the altar, and cast [it] into the earth: and there were voices, and thunderings, and lightnings, and an earthquake.
The thunderclaps, lightnings, and earthquake are the result of the fire from the altar, indicating that the action of heaven initiates a responsive action on earth. As the prayers for the saints for vengeance are taken from the altar, there are frightening sounds, flashes of light, and an earthquake on the earth, introducing the fact that the seven angels are about to sound their trumpets.
Fire from the altar of burnt offering means that God accepted the prayers of the saints. This "fire taken from the altar and cast to the earth" is the fury of God. Our God is a consuming fire. God is angered, and He has decided it is time to punish those on the earth who have rejected Jesus Christ as their Savior.
Just as God finally destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah when they would not repent, there is a time when the fire of God will descend upon this earth in punishment.
Throughout the Bible, all of these natural disasters mentioned in V-5: "thunderings, lightnings, earthquake" are God dealing with mankind. This is no different, and I believe these are literal. A terrible storm takes place above ground and a terrible shaking beneath takes place, as well. The Wrath of God has begun.
Are the Trumpet Judgments Literal Judgments - The best way to decide if the trumpet judgments are literal or symbolic is to study them in connection with the plagues of Egypt, as found in Exodus 7-11. Five of the plagues of Egypt are repeated in the book of Revelation. No one suggests that what happened in Egypt was not literal in its form of judgment on the rebellious Egyptians; thus, we can conclude that the same thing applies during the Tribulation period and that the trumpet judgments introduce physical judgment on the earth. The only exceptions are those trumpets that introduce events beyond human understanding, and even they affect human beings physically.
The reason I am looking into the Heavens is due to the fact that the temperatures was around 6000 degrees F and there are too many scriptures that line up with Revelation and the Tower of Babel, Isaiah 24, Habakkuk 3, and Malachi 4.
Also the sulfur on earth is yellow, whereas the sulfur at Sodom is white. There is also the possibility of a shawdow on the wall where Lot's wife looked back in the hills.
Was Sodom and Gomorrah Wiped Out by a Comet?
Genesis 19:24 Then the LORD rained upon Sodom and Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the LORD out of heaven.
We think we know the story of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, but is there a plausible explanation for what the Bible says happened? Does a story that tells of brimstone and fire falling from the sky and a woman becoming a pillar of salt have a scientific basis?
A number of astronomers believe the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah involved comet activity. Dr. John S. Lewis, a retired professor of Planetary Sciences at the University of Arizona and Co-Director of the NASA Space Engineering Research Center at the University of Arizona, is one scientist who believes that the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah was caused by cosmic bombardment (Rain of Fire and Ice: The Very Real Threat of Comet and Asteroid Bombardment). Genesis 19:24 says, “Then the Lord rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lord out of heaven.” “Brimstone (burning sulfur) and fire raining down from heaven” could be a description of the break up and disintegration of a comet in the Earth’s atmosphere above these ancient cities, since large chunks of rocky and icy material falling from heaven would be seen as fire raining down from heaven. In addition, cometary material is rich in sulfur. Even a small meteor fall can produce a smell of sulfur that is so strong that it is almost suffocating.
Few Bible commentators have grasped the true meaning of what is being described in this phrase about fire and brimstone falling from the sky. (Volcanic activity cannot be used to explain the fire and brimstone, because there are no volcanoes or volcanic deposits in the region.) In an effort to explain this phrase, some have said that the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah was caused by an earthquake which somehow explosively ignited methane gas and sulfur found in the local tar deposits and shot it up into the sky. However, earthquake activity such as this is unprecedented and implausible in terms of geology. For those familiar with astronomy and ancient literature, the expression “fire falling from heaven” is not a cryptic expression nor a literary device that needs some sort of fanciful explanation; it is a simple descriptive phrase. “Fire from heaven” is an accurate description for cosmic material, either a meteor, asteroid, or comet, burning in the atmosphere (“fire”) as it comes in to strike the Earth.
Further indication that a cometary bombardment took place during the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah comes from Genesis 19:28. This verse tells how Abraham “looked toward Sodom and Gomorrah, and toward all the land of the plain, and beheld, and, lo, the smoke of the country went up as the smoke of a furnace.” The “smoke of a furnace” speaks of the rising smoldering cloud that appeared after the explosive cometary impact. An earthquake opening a possible fissure would not produce a towering, smoldering cloud nor create the nodules of sulfur encased in ash found in the area. The impact of even a small cometary fragment over Sodom and Gomorrah could release energy equivalent to the explosion of many hydrogen bombs and raise a mushroom cloud like that in nuclear explosions. Note that the Bible also uses the expression “the smoke of a furnace” in Revelation 9:1-2, when telling how a star (a luminous heavenly body - a comet) from heaven falls to the Earth, and opens a great pit (impact crater). It says smoke will arise out of the pit as the smoke of a great furnace and the air will be darkened and the sun will be darkened by the smoke. Without a doubt all of this describes an explosive cometary impact.
Knowing that a cometary impact is being described sheds a different light on what happened to Lot’s wife. Genesis 19:23 says that Lot entered Zoar (the town of refuge agreed upon in verse 21) yet verse 26 says Lot’s wife looked back. This is not an issue of Lot’s wife simply turning her head to look back. It is an issue of her returning back in order to look. (In Luke 17:29-32 Jesus likens the day of his return to the day it rained fire and brimstone on Sodom and says “he that is in the field, let him likewise not return back. Remember Lot's wife.”)
By returning back for a view of the impending destruction Lot’s wife was close enough to be “consumed” (Genesis 19:17). Genesis 19:26 says “But his (Lot’s) wife looked back from behind him, and she became a pillar of salt.” The Hebrew word translated as “salt” is the word malach (#4417 in Strong’s Concordance) which means “powder” as in something “pulverized” like salt or dust. So Genesis 19:26 can be retranslated to read “But his (Lot’s) wife (returned and) looked back from behind him, and she became a pillar of dust.”Now this verse takes on new meaning because comet impacts raise and produce vast amounts of dust. After an impact the atmosphere rolls back, and then fierce winds containing superheated grains of dust shoot out from the impact site like the “base surge” which rolls away from the site of a nuclear explosion at ground level. Genesis 19:17 NIV warned of being “swept away.” Genesis 19:25 says all “which grew upon the ground” was destroyed. Anyone caught in this surge at just the right distance could conceivably be suffocated and covered by hot dust and become a pillar of dust after the dust cooled and hardened. This is remindful of those covered by ash and dust when a volcanic eruption rained down on the Italian city of Pompeii.
This Biblical account of fire and destruction raining down from the sky to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah brings to mind the eyewitness accounts of the large comet fragment that broke up in the atmosphere over Tunguska, Siberia in 1908. Further, the concept of fire from heaven bringing destruction is also found in the literature of the ancient Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, and Assyrians, the contemporaries of the peoples of the Old Testament. In this literature we read about their (cometary) gods throwing down fire and firebrands from heaven to Earth, burning brought by “hailstones and flames,” and of the Queen of Heaven (Jeremiah 44:17-19 and 25) and her consorts “who rain flaming fire over the land” in contexts consistent with cosmic impacts.
More importantly, the Bible itself shows that the expression and concept of fire falling from heaven indeed pertains to cosmic material raining down from heaven because of the other times this expression or variations of it are used in the Scriptures in a context relating to cosmic impact. For example, see Exodus 9:23-25, Isaiah 30:3, Ezekiel 38:19-22, Revelation 8:7-10, and 9:1-2.)
The Bible reiterates the cometary nature of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah in Isaiah 13. Isaiah 13 describes what we recognize as cometary events, with comets coming in from “the end of heaven . . . to destroy the whole land,” heaven and Earth being shaken and the Sun and the Moon being darkened (Isaiah 13:5, 10, and 13). Then verse 19 says these events “shall be as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah.” In Luke 17:26-29, Jesus likens the day of his return to both the day of Noah and the day of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah. In terms of catastrophe, the common denominator between all three events will be comet activity. [See my March 19, 2012 CP blog entitled - Noah’s Flood Was Really a Tsunami Caused by a Comet: A Retranslation of Genesis 7:11.]
Since natural phenomena can cause fire and brimstone to rain from heaven, the question is: Is there any scientific evidence to support the account of Sodom and Gomorrah’s destruction or is it just a morality tale regarding the wages of sin? At the southern end of the Dead Sea in an area characterized by tar pits and oases (Genesis 14:10) archeologists have found the ruins of two ancient Bronze Age cities (Genesis 13:12 and 14:3). Burnt and reddened bricks have been found. Both cities were destroyed by fire. Abundant potsherds indicate a dense population dating to a period between 2500-2000 BC that ended abruptly around 2000 BC.
It is also interesting to note that the surface of the Dead Sea suddenly dropped by several hundred feet around 2200 BC, and some have speculated that the whole southern part of the Dead Sea may be a very shallow impact crater that was caused by a cosmic disaster. A very shallow impact crater would be consistent with a comet fragment exploding in the atmosphere high above the ground. For example, the 1908 atmospheric impact above Tunguska, Siberia left no discernible crater.
The most definitive evidence for the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah would come from geological evidence associated with cosmic impact. Core samples from buried sediments dating to the time these cities were destroyed by fire should contain high concentrations of cosmic dust with very high concentrations of the elements iridium and nickel, and other materials created at impact. There could also be grains of shocked quartz, whose structure stems from the high pressures of impact or tiny spherules of fused glass-like material that stems from the high temperature of impact. While no formal scientific testing has been done yet, there is some geological evidence that indicates that a cosmic event took place. Dr. Benny Peiser, an expert on cosmic impact from Johns Moores University in England, reports that deposits of a form of calcite only found in meteorites has been discovered near the sites. Then there is the sulfur found in the area. In gypsum deposits, sulfur occurs in small marble to palm sized nodules or balls. The sulfur is tightly compacted and over 95% pure. A glassy ash encloses the sulfur nodules indicating burning and vitrification from great heat. Several different amateur groups have filed reports about this sulfur and posted pictures of these unusual sulfur nodules on the web. Petrographic study of the sulfur could reveal its origins and how it came to form these unique nodules.
The bottom line is this: if the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah was caused by cosmic bombardment as the Bible indicates, there should be more evidence waiting to be found. In a culture that generally believes that science and faith in the Bible are incompatible, what does it say if there is scientific evidence to support the Bible’s account of what happened to Sodom and Gomorrah?
In the Bible story of Sodom and Gomorrah we have another incident like that of the Flood, where the God of the Bible said destruction was coming and behold, the destruction came in the form of cosmic impact. Since this happened on more than one occasion, it may not be a coincidence. We should give God’s description of His “ministers of flaming fire” a closer look for what we can learn about comets and what this means for mankind’s future.
To get the full analysis of each Bible catastrophe covered in THE COMETS OF GOD, the book must be read. A number of links to articles and reports about Biblical catastrophes can be found on my website www.thecometsofgod.com in the section marked "Interesting Links."
www.jesus-is-savior.com/Basics/sodom.htm America in 2015 and Europe.
Researchers: Asteroid Destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah Published April 01, 2008
June 29, 3123 BC Friday Night
A clay tablet that has baffled scientists for 150 years has been identified as a witness's account of the asteroid suspected of being behind the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah.
Researchers who cracked the cuneiform symbols on the Planisphere tablet believe that it recorded an asteroid thought to have been more than half a mile across.
The tablet, found by Henry Layard in the remains of the library in the royal place at Nineveh in the mid-19th century, is thought to be a 700 B.C. copy of notes made by a Sumerian astronomer watching the night sky.
He referred to the asteroid as a "white stone bowl approaching" and recorded it as it "vigorously swept along."
Using computers to recreate the night sky thousands of years ago, scientists have pinpointed his sighting to shortly before dawn on June 29 in the year 3123 B.C.
About half the symbols on the tablet have survived and half of those refer to the asteroid. The other symbols record the positions of clouds and constellations. In the past 150 years scientists have made five unsuccessful attempts to translate the tablet.
Mark Hempsell, one of the researchers from Bristol University who cracked the tablet's code, said: "It's a wonderful piece of observation, an absolutely perfect piece of science."
He said the size and route of the asteroid meant that it was likely to have crashed into the Austrian Alps at Köfels. As it traveled close to the ground it would have left a trail of destruction from supersonic shock waves and then slammed into the Earth with a cataclysmic impact.
Debris consisting of up to two-thirds of the asteroid would have been hurled back along its route and a flash reaching temperatures of 400 Centigrade (752 Fahrenheit) would have been created, killing anyone in its path.
About one million sq kilometers (386,000 sq miles) would have been devastated and the impact would have been equivalent to more than 1,000 tons of TNT exploding.
Dr Hempsall said that at least 20 ancient myths record devastation of the type and on the scale of the asteroid's impact, including the Old Testament tale of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah and the ancient Greek myth of how Phaeton, son of Helios, fell into the River Eridanus after losing control of his father's sun chariot.
The findings of Dr. Hempsall and Alan Bond, of Reaction Engines Ltd., are published in a book, "A Sumerian Observation of the Köfels Impact Event."
The researchers say that the asteroid's impact would explain why at Köfels there is evidence of an ancient landslide 3 miles wide and a quarter of a mile thick.
Tale of devastation
"Then the Lord rained on Sodom and Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lord out of Heaven; and he overthrew those cities and all the valley, and all the inhabitants of the cities ... [Abraham] looked down toward Sodom and Gomorrah and toward all the land of the valley, and beheld, and lo, the smoke of the land went up like the smoke of a furnace."
Source: Genesis 19:24-28
Sodom and Gomorrah 'destroyed by a comet', say astronomers
Astronomers calculate that the Earth is bombarded by a particular dense storm of meteorites over a couple of centuries every 2,500 years - the last two blitzes would have occurred around 2200-2000BC and 400-600AD.
French archaeologist Marie-Agnes Courty will provide powerful corroborative evidence: samples dating from 2200BC from three Middle Eastern regions all containing a calcite material found only in meteorites.
Tradition ascribed the destruction of the Cities of the Plain to the same period. Genesis describes how "the Lord rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lord out of Heaven" - a fair description of a meteorite storm.
Dr Benny Peiser, of Liverpool's John Moores University who is organising the conference, says the destruction is clear from the archaeological record and that cometary debris could explain it. Previous explanations, like earthquake or volcanic eruption, could not account for destruction over such a vast area, covering most of the then known world.
While sceptical about Biblical chronologies he thinks the story could be a description of the impact of the debris, "a record of a real natural event that ended up as a Biblical tradition".
Dr Victor Clube, senior research fellow in astrophysics at Oxford, says the Biblical account accords well with similar events in Babylonian records. He has calculated that the Earth would have passed through a particularly dense cloud of debris - the Taurid meteorite stream, thought to have resulted from the break-up of a comet 40,000 years ago - between 2200 and 2000BC.
This happened again between 400 and 600AD and may have led to the fall of Rome and the Dark Ages. when contemporaries report "fires of righteous vengeance" falling from the sky.
The Taurid Stream is not due to return until the end of the next millennium but Dr Clube says that similar bombardments from other debris could occur in the meantime. "There is danger in the sky," he warns, "and people would be right to be afraid."
Lost Cities of Ash
Lab test results to one of the countless sulphur balls at the site (Note high degree of sulphur 'S' also the presence of magnesium 'Mg' which would increase the intensity of the fire.)
(S) Sulfur is 95.500-98.500; (Cl) Chlorine is 1.874; (Mg) Magnisium helps to make the temperatures burn higher. (Na) Sodium is high due to the area it is at. (Ca) Calcium is at 0.996. Since everything deteriorated over time, calcium would be in high deposits. (Na) 1.108; (Al) 0.015; (Si) 0.052; (Cl) 1.874; (K) 0.030; (Ca) 0.968; (Br) 0.011 Spectra Chem Analytical Analysis.
Sulphur Melting Point 119.6 C; Boiling Point 444.60 C
Known to the ancients; referred to in Genesis as brimstone.
Sulfur is found in meteorites. R.W. Wood suggests that the dark area near the crater Aristarchus is a sulfur deposit.
Sulfur occurs native in the vicinity of volcanos and hot springs. It is widely distributed in nature as iron pyrites, galena, sphalerite, cinnabar, stibnite, gypsum, epsom salts, celestite, barite, etc.
Magnesium Melting point is 650 deg. Celcius. Boiling Point is 1090 C
From Magnesia, district in Thessaly. Compounds of magnesium have long been known. Black recognized magnesium as an element in 1755. Davy isolated it in 1808 and Bussy prepared it in coherent form in 1831. Magnesium is the eighth most abundant element in the earth's crust. It does not occur uncombined, but is found in large deposits in the form of magnesite, dolomite, and other minerals.
The metal is now principally obtained in the U.S. by electrolysis of fused magnesium chloride derived from brines, wells, and sea water.
Calcium Melting point is 842 C. Boiling point is 1484 C.
From the Latin word calx, lime. Though lime was prepared by the Romans in the first century under the name calx, the metal was not discovered until 1808. After learning that Berzelius and Pontin prepared calcium amalgam by electrolyzing lime in mercury, Davy was able to isolate the impure metal.
Calcium, a metallic element, is fifth in abundance in the earth's crust, of which it forms more than 3%. It is an essential constituent of leaves, bones, teeth, and shells. Never found in nature uncombined, it occurs abundantly as limestone, gypsum, and fluorite. Apatite is the fluorophosphate or chlorophosphate of calcium.
Chlorines Melting point is -101.5 celcius; boiling point is -34.04 C.
From the Greek word chloro, greenish yellow. Discovered in 1774 by Scheele, who thought it contained oxygen. Chlorine was named in 1810 by Davy, who insisted it was an element.
In nature it is found in the combined state only, chiefly with sodium as common salt (NaCl), carnallite, and sylvite.
Chlorine is a respiratory irritant. The gas irritates the mucus membranes and the liquid burns the skin. As little as 3.5 ppm can be detected as an odor, and 1000 ppm is likely to be fatal after a few deep breaths. In fact, chlorine was used as a war gas in 1915.
Exposure to chlorine should not exceed 0.5 ppm (8-hour time-weighted average - 40 hour week).
Are Meteorites Important?
Certainly yes! Meteorites tell us about what space is like. Meteorites can tell us about other planets and even about our own earth. Some meteorites have been found to contain amino acids, a chemical that makes up all life on earth. Some people speculate that life didn't begin on this planet, but was brought here by meteorites. Others believe that meteorite collisions with earth were responsible for catastrophic events in the earth's history, such as the demise of dinosaurs.
Meteorites are made up of the same elements that all Earth materials are made of. There are no elements that are not found on Earth. However, there are minerals found in meteorites that are not found in rocks of the Earth.
What is the difference between a meteorite and an asteroid?
This question should maybe be rephrased to “what is the difference between a meteoroid and an asteroid?” Before a stone lands on the ground it is called a meteoroid, while it is passing through the air and burning the light it makes is called a meteor. But when it was in space the only difference from an asteroid was its size. Small bits of rocks and metal are called meteoroids and larger ones are called asteroids. Meteorites are the recovered bits of asteroids since the small pieces that were meteoroids are chunks broken from larger asteroids in the past.
Most planetary atmospheres are made up of simple, low-mass elements and compounds such as carbon dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen. But when a debris particle, or meteoroid, passes through, it can shed heavier, more exotic elements such as magnesium, silicon and iron.
Achrondites - stony meteorites that do not contain grains of silicate material.
Aerolites - stony meteorites that contain only small amounts of metal, usually iron.
Astroblemes - large craters caused by the impact of meteorites.
Chrondites - stony meteorties that contain grains of silicate material.
Olivine - a mineral composed of silica, magnesium and iron that is often found in rocks in the form of green crystals.
Plagioclase - a group of silicate minerals containing calcium and sodium.
Pyroxene - complex silicate minerals containing iron, magnesium, and calcium.
Siderite - a meteorite composed primarily of iron.
Siderolite - a meteorite having nearly equal amounts of metal and stony minerals.
Sulfide nodule - a small lump containing sulfur.
www3.northern.edu/natsource/EARTH/Meteor1.htm; www.meteorite.com/meteorite-information/meteorite-facts/; www.space.com/17440-meteoroids-mars-venus-atmospheres.html
The majority of meteorites that fall to Earth are stony. Stony meteorites are made primarily of silicate minerals.
Silicate minerals are composed of a salt containing a silicon and oxygen (Si-O) anion, combined with wide range of cations. According to the International Meteorite Collectors Association, the most common silicates found in meteorites are olivine and pyroxene. Olivines are magnesium iron silicates. Pyroxenes are silicates with calcium, sodium, iron or magnesium cations; or more rarely zinc, manganese or lithium cations.
Brimestone findings from above.
The brimestone is called a Meteroid and it is classified as a Pyroxene classification even though it lacks iron.
My theory is that Nibiru came from an Oort cloud possibly outside our solar system and then as it came through our solar system on its oval, it picked up Asteroids and Meteorites from our asteroid belt outside of Mars. Depending on its path through the belt is where it picked up either iron or in this case Pyroxene of sulfur. Then when "Passover" went behind our Sun it dropped off its load and when the earth passed through its wake is when the event occurred.
At this time in Earth history the continents had not fully split apart and that is why only a portion of the planet was hit.
From what I have gathered so far, there is a possibility that when Sodom and Gomorrah occured that an asteroid had hit on the planet around the same timeframe somewhere else and we use this hit as part of finding out when Sodom and Gomorrah occurred.
The following is a list of Asteroids in BC. The timeframe we are looking for is around 1800 to 2200 BC
The Henbury craters in Australia (~5,000 years old)
Kaali craters in Estonia (~2,700 years old) from 2015.
Considering its supernatural origin, one would expect to find unique characteristics in such sulfur, and this is indeed the case. Its composition reveals lengthy exposure to high temperatures. Sulfur found in geothermal regions is invariably the "rhombic" form, evident from it's familiar bright yellow colour.
By contrast, the brimstone from these Dead Sea sites is the pale white "monoclinic" form. Sulphur changes to this form when exposed to high temperatures for an extended period of time, as would have been the case.. X-ray Fluorescence Semiquant analysis and other tests reveal the sulfur balls to be up to 98.4% pure sulphur, significantly more pure than naturally occurring sulphur.
The sulfur balls have been found at all five destroyed cities, and although numerous geologists have been consulted, no other examples of naturally occurring sulfur is found anywhere on earth that remotely resembles the form found at these sites.
In places fired clay and charcoal can be found in the ruins. Considering all the evidence, it becomes obvious that these sites cannot be dried lake deposits, or the results of volcanism, as some have suggested. The only real explanation for the growing evidence is that found in Genesis 19:24 - total destruction by fire and brimstone! The condition of these ancient cities are exactly as the Bible states, "...turning the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah into ashes..." 2 Peter 2:6. (below - "They burn when lit" )
Jude 7 - The destruction of these cities was to be an "example" to all.
Still visible today - Most of the sites are easily accessible and can be visited today, in order to confirm the details given in the Bible.
2 Peter 2:6 - The entire cities themselves were turned totally into ash
Everything turned to Ash - This is not merely a normal "burning", for in this case even the very stone buildings themselves have been reduced to ashes.
Genesis 19:25 - Every living thing in the entire plain was consumed
A once fertile region now desolate - The entire Dead Sea valley is a bleak "lunarscape", although tree stumps in the dead sea testify it was once fertile.
Deut 29:23 - A certain amount of sulfur was to remain as a witness
Brimstone Balls - Some remain today as unique witnesses of the destructive element God used. They are easily found in abundance within the ash.
Meteors contain sulfur (Brimstone)
In Genesis 1:2 the word "Spirit" in "Spirit of God" is the Hebrew word "ruach" and means "wind". "Wind of God" is a figure of speech referring to an exceptionally strong wind. Genesis 1, then, describes earth (=the land) "in the beginning" as water-covered, dark, wind-swept and lifeless.
This description corresponds to the consequences of impact(s) of one or more large asteroids in an ocean. The Genesis creation story would then be a story of God restoring our planet after a major catastrophe. (See Investigator 38 & 54)
Sodom and Gomorrah, according to the Bible, were destroyed by "brimstone and fire…out of heaven" and turned "to ashes". (Genesis 19:24-28; 1 Peter 2:6) Since "heaven" usually means the sky we can speculate that a small asteroid exploded above the cities.
Joshua 10:11 describes a battle between Israelites and Amorites:
...the Lord threw down great stones from heaven upon them as far as Azekah, and they died; there were more who died because of the hailstones than the men of Israel killed with the sword.
The "stones" could mean a meteorite shower. The reference "hailstones" could be the human understanding of what they were. Lewis (1996) called it a "Lethal meteorite". (p. 176)
An intriguing passage occurs in Acts:
… the city of the Ephesians is temple keeper of the great Artemis, and of the sacred stone that fell from the sky. (Acts 19:35)
Verschuur (1996) interpreted Pentecost events (Acts 2:1-4) as "a fireball breaking up in the sky and exploding." (p. 37) Speculative but possible.
Lewis (1996) quoted Revelation 8 and reasoned:
The central theme is clear and unambiguous: the events described in Revelation are of astronomical origin, and describe physical events, not mere portents or symbols. Did John somehow know more about impact phenomena than any scientist before the present decade? (p. 13)
The apostle Peter predicted the day of the Lord (end of the world) by fire (2 Peter 2:6; 3:1-13) which starts with a "loud noise". (3:10) By comparison with the Flood of Noah which came largely from the sky, it seems the fire also originates in the sky. (2 Peter 3:3-7) Different Bible translations imply this with differing clarity.
The prophet Zephaniah added:
The day of the Lord is…a day of ruin and devastation, a day of darkness and gloom, a day of clouds and thick darkness…
In the fire of his [God's] jealous wrath, all the earth shall be consumed; for a full, yea, sudden end he will make of all the inhabitants of the earth. (1:14-18)
These descriptions of "a loud noise", global fire, "sudden end" and thick darkness agree with the description of a large asteroid impact. This writer formulated this interpretation in 1974. Bible information was considered along with the book Bombarded Earth plus the observation that a nail banged into wood with a hammer became warmer! One simply imagined a "hammer" millions of times bigger descending 50,000 times faster!
Scientists didn't realize the global fire consequence until the late 1980s! Mutch et al in Geology of Mars (1976) didn't mention it; nor Lunan in Man & The Planets (1983); nor Sagan in Comet (1985).
However, Time-Life Editors in Comets, Asteroids and Meteorites (1990) described the impact of a 9km-wide asteroid and wrote of trillions of glowing, speeding, microfine rock particles encircling the world and heating the surface to 3000oC. Also, 27km-thick layers of soot, dust and nitrogen oxide smog would envelope our Earth, blot out sunlight and make the surface inky black for half a year. A picture on pages 132-133 matches what the Bible says in words!
Prophecies of "stars" falling from the sky (Revelation 6:12-17; Matthew 24:29) could be literally true if "shooting stars" and meteorites are meant. They would fall on the greatest scale following an asteroid impact. (Investigator 60) In Revelation 6 the falling "stars" follow a "great earthquake" – so great it moves:
"every mountain and island … from its place"!
In 1992 a scientist calculated one asteroid's orbit and predicted the world's end for 2126. Another doomsday alert in March 1998 was that asteroid 1997 XF11 which is 2km across would end civilization in October 2028! (Hecht 1998; The Advertiser 1998 May 16)
Both calculations turned out wrong but they raise a question. If a large asteroid were on a collision course we might know months or years ahead. Yet the Bible predicts something unexpected – like a "thief in the night".
Therefore, if the Bible is a supernatural book and if the asteroid impact interpretation of the "day of the Lord" is correct we can speculate whether there's a source of asteroids other than the Asteroid Belt, Kuiper Belt or Oort Cloud. Perhaps near the Sun where they can't be seen!
In 1974 this writer first concluded the global fire of 2 Peter and the "thick darkness" of Zephaniah could occur if a large asteroid impacted. Science, in contrast, ignored ideas of global fire but knew about sunlight-blocking dust causing a freezer effect. However, since the late 1980s it's believed a world on fire would occur first and deep-freeze afterwards.
Geologists, astronomers and paleontologists who rejected "catastrophism" as unscientific had "narrowness of vision". This delayed research thereby risking our extinction. Asteroids near 300 meters diameter strike Earth on average every 10,000 years. Apparently none have struck since civilization began! Countries with cities concentrated along coastlines (e.g. Australia) could be economically wiped out by tsunamis if an asteroid that size hit an ocean! (Luke 21:25) Governments which ignore this, display similar "narrowness of vision" as the scientists!
With Bible prophecies giving descriptions similar to scientific descriptions of asteroid impacts it's time to think!
Sodom and Gomorrah Deaths verses other time periods.
A Chinese record states that 10,000 people were killed in Shanxi Province in 1490 by a hail of "falling stones"; some astronomers hypothesize that this may describe an actual meteorite fall, although they find the number of deaths implausible. Hmmm
If this is true then the astronomers would find the number of deaths implausible at Sodom and Gomorrah. Aish.com for Sodom says there were 500,000 people. Two other sites had around 500,000 each. Possibility in all was 2,500,000 dead.
Here are the ten biggest known:
1. Vredefort Crater
Asteroid impact date: Estimated 2 billion years ago My Date: 2000 BC
Location: Free State, South Africa
Specs: Also known as the Vredefort Dome, the Vredefort crater has an estimated radius of 118 miles (190 kilometers), making it the world's largest known impact structure. This crater was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2005.
2. Sudbury Basin
Asteroid impact date: Estimated 1.8 billion years ago My Date: 1800 BC
Location: Ontario, Canada
Specs: The Sudbury Basin is considered one of largest impact structures on Earth, with an estimated diameter of 81 miles (130 kilometers). Dating back 1.8 billion years, it is also one of the oldest known impact structures in the world.
3. Acraman Crater
Asteroid impact date: Estimated 580 million years ago My Date: 580 BC
Location: South Australia, Australia
Specs: Located in what is now Lake Acraman, this impact structure has an estimated diameter of 56 miles (90 kilometers).
4. Woodleigh Crater
Asteroid impact date: Estimated 364 million years ago My Date: 364 BC
Location: Western Australia, Australia
Specs: This crater is not exposed at the surface and has led to many discrepancies regarding its actual size. Reports on its diameter vary from 25 to 75 miles (40 to 120 kilometers).
5. Manicouagan Crater
Asteroid impact date: Estimated 215 million years ago My Date: 215 BC
Location: Quebec, Canada
Specs: This impact crater formed what is now Lake Manicouagan. Even with erosion, it's considered one of the largest and best-preserved craters on Earth, with an estimated diameter of 62 miles (100 kilometers).
6. Morokweng Crater
Asteroid impact date: Estimated 145 million years ago My Date: 145 BC
Location: North West, South Africa
Specs: Located near the Kalahari Desert in South Africa, this crater contained the fossilized remains of the meteorite that created it.
7. Kara Crater
Asteroid impact date: Estimated 70.3 million years ago My Date: 70 BC
Location: Nenetsia, Russia
Specs: Now greatly eroded, the Kara crater is a non-exposed impact structure in Russia. Some have claimed that the impact structure actually consists of two adjacent craters: the Kara and the Ust-Kara crater.
8. Chicxulub Crater
Asteroid impact date: Estimated 65 million years ago My Date: 65 BC
Location: Yucatán, Mexico
Specs: Located on the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico, many scientists believe that the meteorite that left this crater caused or contributed to the extinction of the dinosaurs. Estimates of its actual diameter range from 106 to a whooping 186 miles (170 to 300 kilometers), which if proved right could mean it's the biggest.
9. Popigai Crater
Asteroid impact date: Estimated 35.7 million years ago My Date: 36 BC
Location: Siberia, Russia
Specs: Russian scientists claim that this crater site contains trillions of carats of diamonds, making it one of the largest diamond deposits in the world. These diamonds have been referred to as "impact diamonds."
10. Chesapeake Bay Crater
Asteroid impact date: Estimated 35 million years ago My date: 35 BC
Location: Virginia, United States
Specs: Discovered in the early 1980s, the Chesapeake Bay Crater is located approximately 125 miles (201 kilometers) from Washington, D.C. Some estimates suggest this crater is 53 miles (85 kilometers) wide.
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